(Collaborators who were under my supervision when the research was being done are listed in bold.)

Peer Reviewed Articles


  1. Tandon N. F., Kushner P.J., Docquier D, Wettstein J., and Li C, (2018). Reassessing Sea Ice Drift and Its Relationship to Long-Term Arctic Sea Ice Loss in Coupled Climate Models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 0, .

  2. Kushner, P. J., Mudryk, L. R., Merryfield, W., Ambadan, J. T., Berg, A., Bichet, A., et al. (2018). Canadian snow and sea ice: assessment of snow, sea ice, and related climate processes in Canada’s Earth system model and climate-prediction system. The Cryosphere, 12(4), 1137–1156.

  3. Mudryk, L. R., Derksen, C., Howell, S., Laliberté, F., Thackeray, C., Sospedra-Alfonso, R., et al. (2018). Canadian snow and sea ice: historical trends and projections. The Cryosphere, 12(4), 1157–1176.

  4. Fajber, R., Kushner, P. J., & Laliberté, F. (2018). Influence of Midlatitude Surface Thermal Anomalies on the Polar Midtroposphere in an Idealized Moist Model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 75(4), 1089–1104.

  5. Screen, J. A., Deser, C., Smith, D. M., Zhang, X., Blackport, R., Kushner, P. J., et al. (2018). Consistency and discrepancy in the atmospheric response to Arctic sea-ice loss across climate models. Nature Geoscience, 11(3), 155–163.

  6. McCusker, K. E., Kushner, P. J., Fyfe, J. C., Sigmond, M., Kharin, V. V., & Bitz, C. M. (2017). Remarkable separability of circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss and greenhouse gas forcing. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(15), 7955–7964.

  7. Watt-Meyer, O., & Kushner, P. J. (2017). Why are Temperature and Upward Wave Activity Flux Positively Skewed in the Polar Stratosphere? Journal of Climate, 31(1), 115–130.

  8. Blackport, R., and P. J. Kushner, 2017: Isolating the Atmospheric Circulation Response to Arctic Sea Ice Loss in the Coupled Climate System. J. Climate, 30, 2163–2185, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0257.1.

  9. Mudryk, L. R., P. J. Kushner, C. Derksen, and C. Thackeray, 2017: Snow cover response to temperature in observational and climate model ensembles. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 919–926, doi:10.1002/2016GL071789.
  10. Wang, L., M. Ting, and P. J. Kushner, 2017: A robust empirical seasonal prediction of winter NAO and surface climate. Scientific Reports, 7, 279, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00353-y.
  11. Bichet, A., P. J. Kushner, L. Mudryk, 2016: Estimating the Continental Response to Global Warming Using Pattern-Scaled Sea Surface Temperatures and Sea Ice. J. Climate, in press.
  12. Blackport, R. and P. J. Kushner, 2016: The Transient and Equilibrium Climate Response to Rapid Summertime Sea Ice Loss in CCSM4. J. Climate, 29, 401–417. doi:
  13. Bichet, A., P. J. Kushner, L. Mudryk, L. Terray, and J.C. Fyfe 2015: Estimating the anthropogenic sea surface temperature response using pattern scaling. J. Climate, 28, 3751-3763. doi:
  14. Laliberté, F., S. E. L. Howell, and P. J. Kushner, 2016: Regional variability of a projected sea ice-free Arctic during the summer months. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 256-263. doi:
  15. Laliberté, F., J. Zika, L. Mudryk, P.J. Kushner, J. Kjellsson, and K. Döös, 2015: Constrained work output of the moist atmospheric heat engine in a changing climate. Science, 347, 540-543. doi:
  16. Mudryk, L. R., C. Derksen, P. J. Kushner, and R. Brown, 2015: Characterization of Northern Hemisphere snow water equivalent datasets, 1981–2010. Journal of Climate, 28, 8037–8051. doi:
  17. JE Kay, C Deser, A Phillips, A Mai, C Hannay, G Strand, JM Arblaster, SC Bates, G Danabasoglu, J Edwards, M Holland, P. J. Kushner, J-F Lamarque, D Lawrence, K Lindsay, A Middleton, E Munoz, R Neale, K Oleson, L Polvani, M Vertenstein, 2015: The Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Project: A community resource for studying climate change in the presence of internal climate variability. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., doi:
  18. Tandon, N. F., and P. J. Kushner, 2015: Does external forcing interfere with the AMOC’s influence on North Atlantic sea surface temperature? Journal of Climate, 28, 6309–6323. doi:
  19. Watt-Meyer, O. and P.J. Kushner, 2015: Decomposition of Atmospheric Disturbances into Standing and Traveling Components, with Application to Northern Hemisphere Planetary Waves and Stratosphere–Troposphere Coupling. J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 787–802. doi:
  20. Watt-Meyer, O., and P. J. Kushner, 2015: The Role of Standing Waves in Driving Persistent Anomalies of Upward Wave Activity Flux. Journal of Climate, 28, 9941–9954. doi:
  21. Laliberté, F. and P.J. Kushner, 2014: Midlatitude moisture contribution to recent Arctic tropospheric summertime variabilityJ. Climate, 27, 5693–5707. 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00721.1
  22. Wang, L., P.J. Kushner, and D. Waugh, 2013: Southern Hemisphere stationary wave response to changes of ozone and greenhouse gasesJ. Climate, 26, 10205-10217. doi:
  23. Mudryk, L.R., P.J. Kushner, and C. Derksen, 2013: Interpreting observed Northern Hemisphere snow trends with large ensembles of climate simulationsClimate Dynamics, doi:
  24. Hurrell, J.W. and coauthors including P.J. Kushner, 2013: The Community Earth System Model: A framework for collaborative researchBull. Am. Met. Soc., 94, 1339-1360. doi:
  25. Maness, H., P.J. Kushner, and I. Fung, 2013: Summertime climate response to mountain pine beetle disturbance in British ColumbiaNature Geoscience, 6, 65-70,
  26. Laliberté, F. and P.J. Kushner, 2013: Isentropic constraints by midlatitude surface warming on the Arctic midtroposphereGeophys. Res. Lett., 40, 606-611,  doi:
  27. Fletcher, C.G. and P.J. Kushner, 2013: Sensitivities in the role of linear interference in a multi-model study of the Northern Annular Mode response to tropical SSTJ. Geophys. Res. Atm., 118, 4267-4279, doi:
  28. Fletcher, C. G., and P. J. Kushner, 2013: Linear interference and the Northern Annular Mode response to tropical SST forcing: Sensitivity to model configuration. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, 4267–4279.
  29. Young, P. J., A. H. Butler, N. Calvo, L. Haimberger, P. J. Kushner, D. R. Marsh, W. J. Randel and K. H. Rosenlof, 2013: Agreement in late twentieth century Southern Hemisphere stratospheric temperature trends in observations and CCMVal-2, CMIP3 and CMIP5 models. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 605-613, doi:
  30. Vyushin, D. I., P. J. Kushner, and F. W. Zwiers, 2012: Modelling and understanding persistence of climate variabilityJ Geophys. Res. - Atm., 117, D21106, doi:
  31. Smith, K. L. and P. J. Kushner, 2012: Linear interference and the initiation of extratropical stratosphere-troposphere interactions. J. Geophys. Res. - Atm., 117, D13107, doi:
  32. Fletcher, C. G., H. Zhao, P. J. Kushner, and R. Fernandes, 2012: Using models and satellite observations to evaluate the strength of snow albedo feedbackJ Geophys. Res. -Atm, 117, D11117,  doi:
  33. Derksen, C. et al. including P. J. Kushner, 2012: Variability and change in the Canadian cryosphereClim. Change. doi:
  34. Smith, K. L, P. J. Kushner, and J. Cohen, 2011: The role of linear interference in Northern Annular Mode variability associated with Eurasian snow cover extentJ. Climate, 24, 6185–6202. doi:
  35. Thompson, D. W. J., S. Solomon, P. J. Kushner, M. H. England, K. M. Grise, D. J. Karoly, 2011: Signatures of the Antarctic ozone hole in Southern Hemisphere climate changeNature Geosci., 4, 741-749. doi:
  36. Serbanescu, R. M., P. J. Kushner, and S. Stanley, 2011:  Putting computation on a par with experiments and theory in the undergraduate physics curriculum. Am. J. Physics, 79, 919-924. doi:
  37. Wang, L. and P. J. Kushner, 2011:  Diagnosing the stratosphere-troposphere stationary wave response to climate change in a general circulation modelJ. Geophys. Res. -Atmos., 116, D16113. doi:
  38. Mudryk, L. R. and P. J. Kushner, 2011: A method to diagnose sources of annular mode time scales. J. Geophys. Res. - Atmos., 116, D14114. doi:
  39. Butchart, N., A. J. Charlton-Perez, I. Cionni, S. C. Hardiman, P. H. Haynes, K. Kruger, P. J. Kushner, P. A. Newman, S. M. Osprey, J. Perlwitz, M. Sigmond, L. Wang, and CCMVal coauthors, 2011: Multimodel climate and variability of the stratosphereJ. Geophys. Res. - Atmos., 116, D05102. doi:
  40. Fletcher, C. G. and P. J. Kushner, 2011: The role of linear interference in the annular mode response to tropical SST forcingJ. Climate, 24, 778-794. doi:
  41. Baldwin, M.P. N. P. Gillett, P. M. Forster, E. P. Gerber, M. I. Hegglin, A. Y. Karpechko, J. Kim, P. J. Kushner, O.H. Morgenstern, T, Reichler, S.-W. Son, K. Tourpali, 2010: Effects of the stratosphere on the troposphere. In SPARC CCMVal (2010), SPARC Report on the Evaluation of Chemistry-Climate Models, V. Eyring, T. G. Shepherd, D. W. Waugh (Eds.), SPARC Report No. 5, WCRP-132, WMO/TD-No. 1526
  42. Butchart, N., A. J. Charlton-Perez, I. Cionni, S. C. Hardiman,  K. Kruger, P. J. Kushner, P. A. Newman, S. M. Osprey, J. Perlwitz, M. Sigmond, L. Wang, 2010: Stratospheric dynamics. In SPARC CCMVal (2010), SPARC Report on the Evaluation of Chemistry-Climate Models, V. Eyring, T. G. Shepherd, D. W. Waugh (Eds.), SPARC Report No. 5, WCRP-132, WMO/TD-No. 1526
  43. Forster, P.M.,  D.W.J. Thompson, M.P. Baldwin, M.P. Chipperfield, M. Dameris, J.D. Haigh, D.J. Karoly, P.J. Kushner, W.J. Randel, K.H. Rosenlof, D.J. Seidel, S. Solomon, 2010: Stratospheric changes and climate, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project—Report No. 52
  44. Smith, K.L.C.G. Fletcher and P. J. Kushner, 2010: The role of linear interference in the Annular Mode response to extratropical surface forcing. J. Climate, 23, 6036-6050, doi:
  45. Wang, L. and P. J. Kushner, 2010: Interpreting stationary wave nonlinearity in barotropic dynamicsJ. Atmos. Sci., 6, 2240-2250. doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3332.1
  46. Scinocca, J. F., M. C. Reader, D. A. Plummer, M. Sigmond, P. J. Kushner, T. G. Shepherd, A.R. Ravishankara., 2009: Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recoveryGeophys. Res. Lett., 36, L24701. doi:
  47. MacIntyre, S., J. P. Fram, P. J. Kushner, N. D. Bettez, W. J. O'Brien, J. E. Hobbie, and G. W. Kling, 2009:Climate-related variations in mixing dynamics in an Alaskan arctic lakeLimnol. Oceanogr., 54, 2401-4217. doi:
  48. Vyushin, D. I., P. J. Kushner, and J. Mayer, 2009: On the origins of temporal power-law behavior in the global atmospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L14706, doi:
  49. Vyushin, D.I. and P. J. Kushner, 2009: Power-law and long-memory characteristics of the atmospheric general circulationJ. Climate, 22, 2890-2904. doi:
  50. Fletcher, C. G., P. J. Kushner, A. Hall, X. Qu, 2009: Circulation responses to snow albedo feedback in climate changeGeophys. Res. Lett., 36, L09702. doi:
  51. Fletcher, C. G.S. C. Hardiman, P. J. Kushner, and J. Cohen, 2009: The dynamical response to snow cover perturbations in a large ensemble of atmospheric GCM integrations, J. Climate, 22, 1208-1222. doi:
  52. Hardiman, S. C., P. J. Kushner, and J. Cohen, 2008: Investigating the ability of general circulation models to capture the effects of Eurasian snow cover on winter climateJ. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 113, D21123. doi:
  53. Sigmond, M., J. F. Scinocca, and P. J. Kushner, 2008: Impact of the stratosphere on tropospheric climate changeGeophys. Res. Lett., 35, L12706, doi:[AGU Journal highlight]
  54. Fletcher, C. G., P. J. Kushner, and J. Cohen, 2007: Stratospheric control of the extratropical circulation response to surface forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21802, doi:
  55. Cohen, J., M. Barlow, P. Kushner, and K. Saito, 2007: Stratosphere-Troposphere coupling and links with Eurasian Land-Surface VariabilityJ. Climate, 21, 5335–5343. doi:
  56. Sigmond, M., P. J. Kushner, and J. F. Scinocca, 2007: Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warmingJ. Geophys. Res. - Atmos., 112, D20121. doi:
  57. Kushner, P. J., and G. Lee, 2007: Resolving the regional signature of the annular modes. J. Climate, 20, 2840–2852. doi:
  58. Kushner, P. J. and L.M. Polvani, 2006: Stratosphere-troposphere coupling in a relatively simple AGCM: impact of the seasonal cycleJ. Climate, 19, 5721–5727. doi:
  59. Cash, B. A., P. Kushner, and G. K. Vallis, 2007: Comment on ‘‘On the presence of annular variability in an aquaplanet model’’ by Masahiro Watanabe. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L03707, doi:
  60. [Contributing author on Southern Annular Mode to:] Randall, D.A., R.A. Wood, S. Bony, R. Colman, T. Fichefet, J. Fyfe, V. Kattsov, A. Pitman, J. Shukla, J. Srinivasan, R.J. Stouffer, A. Sumi and K.E. Taylor, 2007:Climate Models and Their Evaluation. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  61. Kushner, P.J. and L.M. Polvani, 2006: Stratosphere-troposphere coupling in a relatively simple AGCM: impact of the seasonal cycleJ. Climate, 19, 5721–5727. DOI:
  62. Delworth, T.L., A.J. Broccoli, A. Rosati, R.J. Stouffer, V. Balaji, J.A. Beesley, W.F. Cooke, K.W. Dixon, J. Dunne, K.A. Dunne, J.W. Durachta, K.L. Findell, P. Ginoux, A. Gnanadesikan, C.T. Gordon, S.M. Griffies, R. Gudgel, M.J. Harrison, I.M. Held, R.S. Hemler, L.W. Horowitz, S.A. Klein, T.R. Knutson, P.J. Kushner, A.R. Langenhorst, H.C. Lee, S.J. Lin, J. Lu, S.L. Malyshev, P.C.D. Milly, V. Ramaswamy, J. Russell, M.D. Schwarzkopf, E. Shevliakova, J.J. Sirutis, M.J. Spelman, W.F. Stern, M. Winton, A.T. Wittenberg, B. Wyman, F. Zeng, and R. Zhang, 2006: GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristicsJ. Climate, 19, 643–674. doi:
  63. Reichler, T.J., P. J. Kushner, and L.M. Polvani, 2005: The coupled stratosphere-troposphere response to impulsive forcing from the troposphereJ. Atmos. Sci., 62, 3337–3352. doi:
  64. Kushner, P.J. and L.M. Polvani, 2005: A very large, spontaneous stratospheric sudden warming in a simple AGCM: A prototype for the Southern-Hemisphere warming of 2002? J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 890–897.  doi:
  65. Cash, B.A., P.J. Kushner, and G.K. Vallis, 2005: Zonal asymmetries, teleconnnections, and annular modes in a GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 207–219. DOI:
  66. The GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team:, 2004: The New GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM2–LM2: Evaluation with Prescribed SST SimulationsJ. Climate, 17, 4641–4673.
  67. Cash, B.A., P.J. Kushner, and G.K. Vallis, 2004: Comments on "The structure and composition of the annular modes in an aquaplanet general circulation model'' - ReplyJ. Atmos. Sci., 61, 954–956.
  68. Joseph, R., M. Ting, P.J. Kushner, 2004: The global stationary wave response to climate change in a coupled GCM. J. Climate, 17, 540–556.
  69. Kushner, P.J. and L.M. Polvani, 2004: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling in a relatively simple AGCM: the role of eddies. J. Climate, 17, 629–639.
  70. Vallis, G.K., E.P. Gerber, P.J. Kushner, B.A. Cash, 2004: A mechanism and simple dynamical model of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Annular Modes. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 264–280.
  71. Cash, B.A., P.J. Kushner, and G.K. Vallis, 2002: The structure and composition of the annular modes in an aquaplanet general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3399–3414.
  72. Delworth, T.  L.,  R. J.  Stouffer,  K. W.  Dixon,  M. J.  Spelman,  T. R. Knutson,  A. J.  Broccoli, P. J. Kushner, andR. T.  Wetherald, 2002: Review of simulations of climate variability andchange with the GFDL R30 coupled climate model. Climate Dynamics, 19, 555-574. doi:
  73. Polvani, L. M., and P. J. Kushner, 2002: Tropospheric response to stratospheric perturbations in a relatively simple general circulation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1114, doi:
  74. Kushner, P.J., Held, I.M., and Delworth, T.L., 2001: Southern-hemisphere atmospheric circulation response to global warming. J. Climate, 14, 2238-2249. doi:<0001:SHACRT>2.0.CO;2
  75. Kushner, P.J., and Held, I.M., 1999: Potential-vorticity thickness fluxes and wave mean-flow interaction. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 948-958. doi:<0948:PVTFAW>2.0.CO;2
  76. Kushner, P.J. and Held, I.M., 1998: A test, using atmospheric data, of a method for estimating oceanic eddy diffusivity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4213-4216. doi:
  77. Kushner, P.J., McIntyre, M.E., and Shepherd, T.G. 1998: Coupled Kelvin-wave and mirage- wave instabilities in semi-geostrophic dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 513-518. doi:<0513:CKWAMW>2.0.CO;2.
  78. Swanson, K.L., Kushner, P.J., and Held, I.M., 1997: Dynamics of barotropic storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 791-810. doi:<0791:DOBST>2.0.CO;2.
  79. Kushner, P.J. 1995: A generalized Charney-Stern theorem for semi-geostrophic dynamics. Tellus, 47A, 541-547. doi:
  80. Kushner, P.J. and Shepherd, T.G., 1995a: Wave-activity conservation laws and stability theorems for semi-geostrophic dynamics. Part 1. Pseudomomentum-based theory. J. Fluid Mech., 290, 67 - 104. doi:
  81. Kushner, P.J. and Shepherd, T.G., 1995b: Wave-activity conservation laws and stability theorems for semi-geostrophic dynamics. Part 2. Pseudoenergy-based theory. J. Fluid Mech., 290, 105 - 129. 


    Monograph Contributions

    1. Kushner, P. J., 2011: Annular modes of the troposphere and stratosphere (preprint).The Stratosphere: Dynamics, Transport, and Chemistry,  L.M. Polvani, A.H. Sobel, and D.W. Waugh eds. AGU Geophysical Monograph Series Vol. 190.
    2. Kushner, P.J., 2003: Circulation, Vorticity, and Potential Vorticity. In Handbook of Weather, Climate, and Water, eds. T.D. Potter and B.R. Colman, 2003, pp.21–38, Wiley.
    3. Kushner, P.J., 1995: Wave-activity conservation laws and stability theorems for semi-geostrophic dynamics. Doctoral thesis. University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.


    Non-refereed Contributions

    1. Kushner, P.J., P. Gauthier, J. Gyakum, K. Strong, R. Stull, P. Taylor, 2015. Report on a Workshop of the Working Group on Atmosphere-Related Research in Canadian Universities. CMOS Bulletin.
    2. Kushner, P.J., 2015. Emerging from the dark ages. Compute Canada Blog.
    3. Kushner, P. J., K. L. Smith, R. D. Brown, C. Dersken, C. R. Duguay, R. Fernandes, and W.R. Peltier, 2010. Workshop report: Simulation of the Canadian cryosphere. CMOS Bulletin.
    4. Kushner, P. J. et al, 2009: SPARC Dynamics and Variability Project (DynVar) Plans and StatusSPARC Newsletter, 32, 13-15.
    5. M.P. Baldwin et al.Report on the Chapman Conference, 2008: “The Role of the Stratosphere in Climate and Climate Change”, SPARC Newsletter, 31, 9–13.
    6. Kushner, P.J., J. Austin, M. P. Baldwin, N. Butchart, M.A. Giorgetta, P. H. Haynes, E. Manzini, N. A. McFarlane, A. O'Neill, J. Perlwitz, L. M. Polvani, W. A. Robinson, F. Sassi, J. F. Scinocca, T. G. Shepherd, 2007: The SPARC DynVar Project: A SPARC project on the dynamics and variability of the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system. SPARC Newsletter, 29, 9-14.
    7. Sigmond, M. P., P. J. Kushner, W. A. Robinson and T. G. Shepherd, 2006: Dynamics of the stratospheric circulation response to climate changeSPARC Newsletter, 27, 10-12
    8. Kushner, P.J., 2003: How does the atmospheric circulation respond to global warming?  Proceedings of the 2003 Standstead Seminars, winter 2003, pp.66-68, McGill.